Blog – bees, beekeeping & other sticky subjects
In the December 2015 issue of Bee Craft, Turlough’s article In Search of Drone Congregation Areas was published (pp 7-9). Here is an update on that article following email conversations with a world expert on insect mating.
Since it’s autumn here and drones have long since been kicked out of queen-right hives, it’s back to the books to find out what else is known about Drone Congregation Areas (DCAs), those special places where drones assemble in hope of mating with a honeybee queen.
I’ve come across the topic of hilltopping amongst other insects and which has resonance with my efforts to locate honeybee DCAs.
Hilltopping, as the name suggests, is a phenomenon observed amongst some male insects to gather on hill tops awaiting a female. John Alcock, of Arizona University and a world expert on insect mating, has observed it with the little known crabronid wasp Tachysphex menkei and other insects. However, he believes that hill-topping by the crabronid wasp is a mating behaviour of last resort: “no female … has been observed visiting waiting males”! The successful males may get their action more quickly and elsewhere. Hill-topping might be most common amongst insects where they are thinly spread.
Professor Alcock has very kindly responded to some email queries from me and thinks that next year’s plan to study DCAs in an area where there are more honeybee colonies could be revealing.
Could hill-topping apply to honeybees and, if so, in what circumstances? I’m looking forward to next season to see if we can begin to answer that.
Here’s a reminder of what action in a DCA can look like.
And the story so far in case you’ve missed it:
1 July 2015 In search of a mate
2 July 2015 Drone Congregation Areas
7 July 2015 Another Drone Congregation Area
20 July 2015 Video of Life in a Drone Congregation Area
28 July 2015 Do drones assemble above prehistoric sites?
3 August 2015 Drone Goal?
10 August 2015 Rediscovering the first recorded Drone Congregation Area
8 September 2015 In search of a Drone Congregation Area SatNav
Vita’s Guest Beekeeper Blogger
Nosema ceranae – emergence & hope
This week Vita begins lab tests in Greece for a new treatment for Nosema ceranae, the second greatest threat to honeybees after Varroa in some countries. Earlier tests have proved promising, so it’s time to go further and perhaps try it in the field later, at a time of year when the threat is greatest.
Coincidentally, I was reminded of my introduction to Nosema ceranae yesterday while walking across the Berkshire countryside in England and stumbled across an apiary I remembered from a few years back. (Public footpaths across agricultural land are common throughout England and Wales, so it is possible to explore the countryside and get into all sorts of nooks and crannies.)
It was 2009 and I was leading a group of local beekeepers in a spring apiary inspection of about a dozen hives. The apiary was beautifully situated in a clearing in front of a patch of woodland that faced onto a wide expanse of arable land. The bees were in a very poor state, but there were no obvious signs as to what was wrong.
We ‘ummed and ahhed’, but came to no firm conclusions on the day. Nosema apis (the older version) was considered, but since there was no evidence of dysentery on the front of the hives, it was discounted. Similarly there were no signs of excessive Varroa populations or of either American or European Foulbrood. We left the apiary mystified. We didn’t then know much about the new version of Nosema ceranae that was emerging and proving to be a killer in other countries. On reflection, we now think the new variant was the culprit.
The elderly, experienced beekeeper was distraught. I offered him a spare colony from my own apiary to help him rebuild and he gladly accepted. But the problem was how to collect it. He was an agricultural worker and had a vehicle that because it used discounted agricultural (red) diesel was prohibited from travelling on public roads except “on rare and very limited occurrences”. He tried plotting a route of 30 kms across English countryside avoiding public roads, but failed. I had visions of him churning up fields and gardens on his way to me. I was relieved when he eventually he turned up in a borrowed car using the public highways.
Since 2009, Nosema ceranae has gained a much higher profile and is now thought to have been the cause of the deaths of huge numbers of colonies in Spain in 2001. It has probably been around for 20 years having jumped from the eastern honeybee (Apis cerana), but wasn’t identified as being distinct from Nosema apis until 2007. Whereas Nosema apis has seasonal peaks and falls and is relatively easy to identify and therefore control, Nosema ceranae is less obvious, can be virulent all season and reaches parts of the bee that Nosema apis cannot.
VitaFeed Gold has proven very effective in boosting honeybee immune systems, particularly in colonies affected by dysentery. The new potential treatment under test could provide a very effective tool in tackling Nosema ceranae directly. Vita will report back on progress.
Vita’s Guest Beekeeper Blogger
The other Queen Bee at Downton Abbey
Perched high above the Castle is a glorious folly, Heaven’s Gate, built in 1737 by Robert Herbert and restored in 1997 by George Herbert, the 8th Earl of Caernarvon.
And in a hollow in the crumbling brickwork is a feral colony of honeybees, one of very few known in the area. How long can it last in the face of the Varroa mite? Can the withering comments of that Queen Bee offer any defence?
Vita’s Guest Beekeeper Blogger
Small Hive Beetle returns
Thanks to some translating work from the International Bee Research Association (IBRA), we have an update of the latest on the spread of Aethina tumida, the Small Hive Beetle (SHB).
Last autumn we reported on the first appearance of SHB in southern Italy. The last case was found on 23 December 2014 and, since there were no further reports until now, the hope was been that it hadn’t spread. But the latest news is not good.
This week adults and larva were found in an Apiary in Figurelle, a village in San Martino di Taurianova, Calabria. SHB was found in eight of the 32 colonies in the apiary. Last year’s burnings appear not to have been fully effective.
Here, in Italian, is the list of SHB sightings to date and the map (original pdf from Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie here) is below:
Don’t forget, Vita’s Beetle Blaster gives early warning of SHB’s arrival.
Wasps beware, ApiShield is here
Although we do not think the Asian Hornet (Vespa velutina) has arrived, ApiShield is providing a very useful tool to stop wasps bothering the honeybees.
ApiShield not only lures wasps, but also robber bees. It’s a simple process to dispose of the carcasses on frequent or infrequent apiary visits.
Unwelcome visitors are lured into the sides of ApiShield by the smell of bees and honey, but then cannot escape.
You can find full information about ApiShield here.